Mechanical polishing is a polishing method that removes the polished convex parts by cutting and plastic deformation of the surface of the material to obtain a smooth surface. Generally, whetstone strips, wool wheels, sandpaper, etc. are used. Using auxiliary tools such as turntables, ultra-fine grinding and polishing methods can be used for those with high surface quality requirements. Ultra-precision grinding and polishing is a special abrasive tool, which is pressed on the surface of the workpiece to be machined in the grinding and polishing liquid containing abrasive, and rotates at high speed.
Chemical polishing is to allow the microscopically protruding parts of the material to dissolve preferentially over the concave parts in the chemical medium, thereby obtaining a smooth surface. The main advantage of this method is that it does not require complex equipment, can polish workpieces with complex shapes, and can polish many workpieces at the same time, with high efficiency.
The basic principle of electrolytic polishing is the same as that of chemical polishing, that is, by selectively dissolving tiny protrusions on the surface of the material to make the surface smooth. Compared with chemical polishing, the influence of cathode reaction can be eliminated, and the effect is better.
The workpiece is placed in the abrasive suspension and placed in the ultrasonic field together, and the abrasive is ground and polished on the surface of the workpiece by the oscillation of the ultrasonic wave. The macroscopic force of ultrasonic processing is small, and it will not cause deformation of the workpiece, but it is difficult to make and install the tooling. Ultrasonic machining can be combined with chemical or electrochemical methods. On the basis of solution corrosion and electrolysis, ultrasonic vibration is applied to stir the solution, so that the dissolved products on the surface of the workpiece are detached, and the corrosion or electrolyte near the surface is uniform; the cavitation of ultrasonic waves in the liquid can also inhibit the corrosion process, which is conducive to surface brightening.
The purpose of polishing is achieved by scouring the surface of the workpiece by the high-speed flowing liquid and the abrasive particles it carries. Commonly used methods are: abrasive jet machining, liquid jet machining, hydrodynamic grinding, etc. Hydrodynamic grinding is driven by hydraulic pressure, so that the liquid medium carrying abrasive particles flows reciprocatingly across the surface of the workpiece at high speed. The medium is mainly made of special compounds (usually polymer-like substances) with good flowability under lower pressure and mixed with abrasives, and the abrasives can be silicon carbide powder.
Magnetic grinding and polishing is to use magnetic abrasives to form abrasive brushes under the action of a magnetic field to grind workpieces. This method has high processing efficiency, good quality, easy control of processing conditions, and good working conditions.
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